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GHB is gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, including its salts, isomers and salts of isomers.


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Xyrem sodium oxybate Oral Solution is a prescription medicine approved by the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA with an orphan disease deation to treat cataplexy a condition where patients suddenly lose muscle tone, including voluntary muscle control, while awake and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy. Risks associated with sodium oxybate Xyrem at recommended doses can include central nervous system CNS depression, respiratory depression, confusion, and neuropsychiatric events such as depression. Because of the risk of CNS depression, and abuse and misuse, sodium oxybate Xyrem is only available through risk evaluation mitigation strategy REMS programs.

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Euphoria, increased sex drive, and tranquility are reported positive effects of GHB abuse. Negative effects may include sweating, loss of consciousness, nausea, hallucinations, amnesia, and coma, among schedule side effects. Xyrem sodium oxybatea brand name prescription drug was approved by the Food and Drug Administration FDA in for the treatment of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness ghb recurring daytime sleep attacks.

It is the sodium salt of gamma hydroxybutyrate. Xyrem is a highly regulated drug in the U. It is a Schedule III controlled substance, and requires patient enrollment in a restricted access program. GHB is also a naturally-occurring metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA found in the brain. The naturally-occurring metabolite GHB is present in much lower concentrations in the brain than those levels found when the drug is abused. As a result of fermentation, natural GHB may also be found in small but inificant quantities in what beers and wines.

GHB is available as an odorless, colorless drug that may be combined with alcohol and given to unsuspecting victims prior to sexual assaults. It may have a soapy or salty taste. Victims become incapacitated due to the sedative effects of GHB, and they are unable to resist sexual assault.

Ghb - gamma-hydroxybutyric acid

GHB may also induce amnesia in its victim. Common user groups include high school and college students and rave party attendees who use GHB for its intoxicating effects. GHB has also been postulated to have anabolic effects due to protein synthesis, and has been used by body-builders for muscle building and reducing fat. GHB is bought on the streets or over the Internet in liquid form or as a white powdered material for illicit use.

It is taken orally and is frequently combined with alcohol. Much of the GHB found on the streets or over the Internet is produced in illegal labs.

GHB may be adulterated with unknown contaminants that may worsen its toxicity. Xyrem is not available at regular retail pharmacies. If Xyrem is trafficked as a recreational drug, its status converts to Schedule I and it becomes an illegal drug. Only five percent of the parent drug is excreted via the kidneys. However, immediate negative effects of GHB use may include:. GHB can have an addictive potential if used repeatedly.

Withdrawal effects may include insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating.

Withdrawal can be severe and incapacitating. Combined use with alcohol, other sedatives or hypnotics such as barbiturates or benzodiazepines and other drugs that possess CNS depressant activity may result in nausea, vomiting and aspiration, and dangerous CNS and respiratory breathing depression.

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High doses of GHB, even without other illicit substances or alcohol, may result in profound sedation, seizures, coma, severe respiratory depression and death. Emergency department episodes related to the use of club drugs usually involve the use of multiple substances, such as marijuana, cocaine, and other club drugs, such as methamphetamineEcstasyor Rohypnol. Emergency room physicians may be unaware that GHB has been abused when a patient presents to the hospital.

Due to the short half-life of the drug, detection in the urine may be difficult. Supportive care and keeping airways open are the primary measures used in the emergency overdose situation. Effects of GHB use in human pregnancy are not known. Women should not use GHB during pregnancy.

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Pregnant women, or those who are considering pregnancy, and who use GHB should seek the immediate advice of a health care provider. Little information is available on treatment options for persons addicted to any club drug, including GHB. Some users of GHB are not physically dependent upon it, and can be treated and informed on an outpatient basis. Chronic use may result in severe withdrawal symptoms upon detoxification, and close medical supervision and supportive care is required for these patients.

Hospitalization may range from 7 to 14 days. Withdrawal effects are reported as severe and patients may attempt to self-detoxify using benzodiazepines or alcohol. Using these additional substances may worsen withdrawal, and lead to respiratory depression, coma and death. Baclofen has been noted in a case report as a possible treatment for GHB withdrawal.

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this applies to your personal circumstances. Methods of GHB Abuse GHB is available as an odorless, colorless drug that may be combined with alcohol and given to unsuspecting victims prior to sexual assaults. However, immediate negative effects of GHB use may include: sweating loss of consciousness nausea auditory and visual hallucinations headaches vomiting exhaustion sluggishness amnesia confusion clumsiness GHB can have an addictive potential if used repeatedly.

Commonly Abused Drugs Charts. Miotto, K. Darakjian, J. Basch, J. American Journal on Addictions 10 3 Substance Abuse Treatment Advisory. Volume 2, Issue 1, November Baclofen and Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Withdrawal. Neurocrit Care. Subscribe to our newsletters.

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