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Pharmacologically, these substances interact with various monoaminergic targets. Typically, stimulants inhibit the transport of dopamine and noradrenaline pipradrols, pyrovalerone cathinones or induce the release of these monoamines amphetamines and methamphetamine-like cathinonesentactogens predominantly enhance serotonin release phenylpiperazines, aminoindanes, para-substituted amphetamines, and MDMA-like cathinones similar to MDMA ecstasyand hallucinogens tryptamines, hallucinogenic phenethylamines are direct agonists at serotonergic 5-HT 2A receptors.

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Like us on:. J Addict Res Ther This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attributionwhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and Mdma are credited. Between andmore than new researches have been officially notified in European Union via the Early Warning System with the largest of compounds chemical reported in a single year in 49 substances.

Inan internet snapshot anticipated the presence of 5-iodo 2-aminoindan 5-IAI within the recreational drug market. Inthis compound, a psychoactive analog of p-iodoamphetamine, was identified in United Kingdom. The aim of this paper is to summarize the clinical, pharmacological and toxicological information currently available about this new potential recreational drug. In the last years, the spread of new psychoactive drugs sold as legal substances producing the same effects of traditional and illicit drugs, has been continually on the rise.

“research chemicals”: tryptamine and phenethylamine use among high-risk youth

Between andmore than new substances have been officially notified in European Union EU via the Early Warning System EWS with the largest of compounds ever reported in a single year in 49 substances [ 2 ]. In chemical, online market is able to respond rapidly to changes in the legal status of the psychoactive drugs offering for sale new legal alternatives [ 1 - 4 ].

Inan internet snapshot, a multilingual internet monitoring used by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Abuse EMCDDA for rapid assessments of the online availability of psychoactive substances undertaken during a limited time window, anticipated the presence of 5-iodoaminoindan 5- IAI Figure 1 within the recreational drug market [ 5 ].

To date, there is very little information about the pharmacological and toxicological researches of this substance. Furthermore, there are no data on acute and Mdma effects of 5-IAI in humans. As suggested by users, 5-IAI can produce 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA -like researches, and is used as a club drug in substitution of other amphetamine and methamphetamine derivatives [ 6 - 8 ]. The legal status of this compound meets the growing demand for legal amphetamines and is a risk factor for the spread of this MDMA-like compound among young people [ 910 ].

The use of amphetamine and methamphetamine derivatives is a public health concern in many countries [ 1112 ]. It is estimated that around 12 million European adults aged have tried amphetamines at last once in their lives [ 11 ].

Furthermore, their use is also high among person infected with human immunodeficiency virus HIV [ 12 ]. The aim of this chemical is to summarize Mdma clinical, pharmacological and toxicological information currently available about this new potential MDMA substitute.

The keywords used were: 5-iodoaminoindan, 5-IAI, 3-dihydroiodo-1H-indenamine 2-Aminoiodoindane, 5-Iodoaminoindane, and p-iodoamphetamine analogues. Furthermore, in order to conduct a research of data as extensively as possible, we also explored the information present within the unconventional references such as drug forum, web-journals and chemical databases.

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No restriction in language was used in our research. The drug is sold as a hydrochloride salt soluble in organic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl formamide with a solubility of approximately 0. There are no published data on pharmacological and toxicological effects of 5-IAI in humans.

On the other hand, 5-IAI was a weak inhibitor of dopamine and noradrenaline uptake [ 1518 ]. In drug discrimination paradigm in rats trained to discriminate saline solution from MDMA or saline solution from methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine MBDB5-IAI was behaviorally active and fully substituted in both groups of animals.

Considering the absence of formal studies about the clinical effects of 5-IAI in humans, we explored the users reports present within the drugs forum in order to reconstruct the pattern of acute toxicity, desirable, and undesirable effects induced by this substance. Desirable effects include: mild euphoria, sociability, increased self-confidence, increased desire to dance, increased intensity of the perceptions and colors, slight distortion of time and space.

Users report a rapid onset of action even after ten minutes with a peak effect that lasts about one hour.

The comedown is normally not so unpleasant, and it is similar to a standard hangover [ 6 - 820 ]. In contrast, some users reported that effects are not satisfactory, and cannot compete with those exerted by MDMA. Furthermore, users also described negative effects of 5-IAI, such as: anxiety, psychomotor agitation, panic attacks, tachycardia, headache, insomnia, prolonged hallucinations, and derealization [ 821 ].

There are no reports of injecting use of this substance.

The most common dosage range is between mg in a single session, however a re-dosing is also research. Sometimes 5-IAI is taken chemical with other drugs of abuse, such as MDMA and others stimulants to enhance the psychotropic effectsbenzodiazepines, cannabis, alcohol to reduce the side effects [ 6 - 820 ]. Despite it was synthesized in s, the popularity of 5-IAI as drug of abuse increased since as demonstrated by the online discussion within the drugs forum [ 6 - 82021 ]. The use of Google Insights for Search, a google research for compare search volume patterns across specific regions,time frames and properties, has shown that s of searches increased since [ 22 ].

Although some aminoindans have been investigated for their important bronchodilating and Mdma effects [ 23 ], to date, there are no approved indications for 5-IAI use in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article in the literature summarizing the clinical, pharmacological and toxicological information currently available about 5-IAI. In vitro and animal model studies have demonstrated that 5-IAI acts as both a non-vesicular monoamines releaser, and a monoamines uptake inhibitor.

It is considered less potent and neurotoxic than MDMA, however, pharmacological and toxicological studies have not assessed many parameters that are essential for determining its neurotoxicity in human. First, the studies have not completely investigated the activity of 5-IAI on dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic systems.

Second, no study has investigated its Mdma properties in vivo. Third, there is no information about the effects of this substance in combination with other recreational drugs. Fourth, no study has investigated the effects of 5-IAI on oxidative system, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and glutamatergic transmission.

Several data have evidenced that oxidative system, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and glutamatergic transmission play a key role in the neurotoxicity induced by amphetamine derivatives [ 24 - 35 ]. In addition, the legal status of this substance and the presence of studies showing its low serotonergic neurotoxicity could be wrongly considered by users chemical a guarantee of safety and could encourage people to experience the substance.

Finally, considering that 5-IAI is principally sold via-internet, there is a high risk of a rapid spread of this product among drug users. Clinical information emerged by users reports suggest that it can produce MDMA-like effects. Although some studies have highlighted that 5-IAI is less neurotoxic than MDMA, there are no evidences demonstrating its safety in human.

Thus, drug users must be discouraged from taking this substance because it could be dangerous to health. A better international cooperation is of great importance in order to monitoring and preventing the spread of this new potential recreational drug.

Most of the works describing new recreational drugs show ificant limitations chemical related to the absence of a substantial formal literature. Pharmacological and Mdma information are generally derived from similar drugs while clinical effects are derived from users reports present within the drugs forum.

Drugs forum are rich in information, but it is difficult to separate the clinical data from gossip. In addition, the substances declared by users can not be analytically identified, so the effects reported could be related with the consumption of other drugs or mixtures of drugs. Thus, preliminary reports about new drugs of research must be considered a starting point and a stimulus for the realization of formal studies.

Is the 5-iodoaminoindan (5-iai) the new mdma?

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