Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves, which are dried and fermented before being put in tobacco products. Tobacco contains nicotine, an ingredient that can lead to addiction, which is why so many people who use tobacco find it difficult to quit. There are also many other potentially harmful chemicals found in tobacco or created by burning it. People can smoke, chew, or sniff tobacco.
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Smoked tobacco products include cigarettes, cigars, bidis, and kreteks. Some people also smoke loose tobacco in a pipe or hookah water pipe. Chewed tobacco products include chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, and snus; snuff can also be sniffed. The nicotine in any tobacco product readily absorbs into the blood when a person uses it. Upon entering the blood, nicotine immediately stimulates the adrenal glands to release the hormone epinephrine adrenaline. Epinephrine stimulates the central nervous system and increases blood pressure, breathing, and heart rate.
Although nicotine is addictive, most of the severe health effects of tobacco use comes from other chemicals. Tobacco smoking can lead to lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. It increases the risk of heart disease, which can lead to stroke or heart attack. Smoking has also been linked to other cancers, leukemia, cataracts, Type 2 Diabetes, and pneumonia. All of these risks apply to use of any smoked product, including hookah tobacco. Smokeless tobacco increases the risk of cancer, especially mouth cancers.
Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes or e-vaporizers, are battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine with flavorings and other chemicals to the lungs in vapor instead of smoke.
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E-cigarette companies often advertise them as safer than traditional cigarettes because they don't burn tobacco. But researchers actually know little about the health risks of using these devices. Pregnant women who smoke cigarettes run an increased risk of miscarriage, stillborn or premature infants, or infants with low birth weight.
Smoking while pregnant may also be associated with learning and behavioral problems in exposed children. People who stand or sit near others who smoke are exposed to secondhand smoke, either coming from the burning end of the tobacco product or exhaled by the person who is smoking. Secondhand smoke exposure can also lead to lung cancer and heart disease. It can cause health problems in both adults and children, such as coughing, phlegm, reduced lung function, pneumonia, and bronchitis.
Children exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk of ear infections, severe asthma, lung infections, and death from sudden infant death syndrome.
It also reduces the risk of premature death and can add as much as a decade to life expectancy. For many who use tobacco, brain changes brought on by continued nicotine exposure result in addiction.
When a person tries to quit, he or she may have withdrawal symptoms, including:. Both behavioral treatments and medications can help people quit smoking, but the combination of medication with counseling is more effective than either alone. The U. Department of Health and Human Services has established a national toll-free quitline, QUIT-NOW, to serve as an access point for anyone seeking information and help in quitting smoking. On May 5,the FDA announced that nationwide tobacco regulations now extend to all tobacco products, including.
This ruling includes restricting sale of these products to minors. In Decemberthe federal government raised the legal minimum age of sale of tobacco products from 18 to 21 years, and in Januarythe FDA issued a policy on the sale of flavored vaping cartridges. Behavioral treatments use a variety of methods to help people quit smoking, ranging from self-help materials to counseling.
These treatments teach people to recognize high-risk situations and develop strategies to deal with them. For example, people who hang out with others who smoke are more likely to smoke and less likely to quit. Nicotine replacement therapies NRTs were the first medications the U. NRTs deliver a controlled dose of nicotine to relieve withdrawal symptoms while the person tries to quit. They target nicotine receptors in the brain, easing withdrawal symptoms and blocking the effects of nicotine if people start smoking again.
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Nicotine is poisonous and, though uncommon, overdose is possible. An overdose occurs when the person uses too much of a drug and has a toxic reaction that in serious, harmful symptoms or death. Nicotine poisoning usually occurs in young children who accidentally chew on nicotine gum or patches used to quit smoking or swallow e-cigarette liquid.
Symptoms include difficulty breathing, vomiting, fainting, headache, weakness, and increased or decreased heart rate. Anyone concerned that or adult might be experiencing a nicotine overdose should seek immediate medical help.
The Food and Drug Administration has alerted the public to hundreds of reports of serious lung illnesses associated with vaping, including several deaths. Many of the suspect products tested by the states or federal health officials have been identified as vaping products containing THC, the main psychotropic ingredient in marijuana. Some of the patients reported a mixture of THC and nicotine; and some reported vaping nicotine alone.
No one substance has been identified in all of the samples tested, and it is unclear if the illnesses are related to one single compound. Until more details are known, FDA officials have warned people not to use any vaping products bought on the street, and they warn against modifying any products purchased in stores.
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They are also asking people and health professionals to report any adverse effects. The CDC has posted an information for consumers. This publication is available for your use and may be reproduced in its entirety without permission from NIDA. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health.
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Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes or e-vaporizers, are battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine with flavorings and other chemicals to the lungs in vapor instead of smoke. Government Regulation of Tobacco Products On May 5,the FDA announced that nationwide tobacco regulations now extend to all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and their liquid solutions cigars hookah tobacco pipe tobacco This ruling includes restricting sale of these products to minors.
Reports of Deaths Related to Vaping The Food and Drug Administration has alerted the public to hundreds of reports of serious lung illnesses associated with vaping, including several deaths. Points to Remember Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves, which are dried and fermented before being put in tobacco products.
Tobacco contains nicotine, the ingredient that can lead to addiction. Nicotine acts in the brain by stimulating the adrenal glands to release the hormone epinephrine adrenaline and by increasing levels of the chemical messenger dopamine. Smoking has also been linked to other cancers, leukemia, cataracts, and pneumonia. Secondhand smoke can lead to lung cancer and heart disease as well as other health effects in adults and children. Both behavioral treatments and medication can help people quit smoking, but the combination of medication with counseling is more effective than either alone.
Nicotine overdose is possible, though it usually occurs in young children who accidentally chew on nicotine gum or patches or swallow e-cigarette liquid. April